2 edition of platinum group element and gold content of some nickel sulphide ores found in the catalog.
platinum group element and gold content of some nickel sulphide ores
Hoffman, Eric Lawrence
|Statement||[Eric Lawrence Hoffman].|
|Contributions||Toronto, Ont. University.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||xii, 177 leaves :|
|Number of Pages||177|
It has a high melting point but the lowest melting point of all the PGMs. Mafic layered intrusionsincluding the Bushveld Complexoutweigh by far all other geological settings of platinum deposits. A third phase is the solution which now contains the products of oxidation consisting of iron sulphate and sulphuric acid. In some installations all failures occur within 5 years, but in many cases failures continue for 10 years or more after installation.
Because these techniques were not available until the turn of the 19th century, the identification and isolation of the platinum group lagged behind silver and gold by thousands of years. With Pt emissions expecting to increase as a result of increase Pt mining activity in the Bushveld Igneous Complex, further research is needed to determine the environmental impacts. If base metal sulphide minerals were present, then copper, nickel, cobalt etc. The dense crystal form at high temperature swells on cooling to make a less dense crystal form at low temperatures. It mainly comes from iron-nickel meteorites that formed millions of years ago but were preserved from chemical attack by the vacuum of space, and fell to the earth a relatively short time ago. Magmatic nickel—copper—platinum group elements.
It does however suffer from at least two disadvantages. Platinum also serves as a catalyst in the curing of silicones which are important in applications as diverse as baking, bandages, and airplane gasket seals "Platinum today: silicones". For example, metallic cadmium was only found at two locations including the Vilyuy River basin in Siberia. Geochemically anomalous traces occur predominantly in chromian spinels and sulfides.
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Characterisation is a study of a material; what it looks like, what is made of, what kinds of impurities and trace elements does it contain, and how is it situated in relation to its surrounds.
Rhodium and platinum group element and gold content of some nickel sulphide ores book are harder and more difficult to work with, although chemical compounds of these two metals are valued in a number of alloy applications. Mafic layered intrusionsincluding the Bushveld Complexoutweigh by far all other geological settings of platinum deposits.
As a result of some early characterisation work it was recognised that fuel oil contains traces of nickel and because of this glass processing tanks which originally used fuel oil burners have been converted to natural gas. The product produced by the tank 12 is thus subjected to a gravity concentration step 16 making use of a gravity separation device such as a spiral concentrator or a shaking table.
However, the annual world production in of this element is only 7 or 8 tons and there are very few rhodium minerals. The final residue is treated with sodium peroxide to convert iridium to a form soluble in hydrochloric acidfrom which it can be precipitated with ammonium chloride and calcined to metal powder.
History[ edit ] Naturally occurring platinum and platinum-rich alloys were known by pre-Columbian Americans for many years. The huge quantities of nickel ore processed makes up for the fact that platinum makes up only two parts per million of the ore.
Both platinum and palladium are often used as catalysts, meaning they speed up chemical reactions without themselves being chemically altered in the process. However, the transformation is sluggish and when glass is rapidly cooled as part of the toughening process, the nickel sulphide remains trapped in its high temperature form until some years later when its transformation breaks the glass.
The heat-soak process induces the inclusions to transform to their low temperature form which causes the problem windows to fail.
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A process according to claim 1 wherein the heavy fraction is further oxidised in at least said first tank. Applications for Platinum Group Metals PGMs are most often used as catalysts because of their chemical stability, but they are not limited to this role. The individual metal solutions are then treated by conventional techniques to recover the various metals in a pure state.
Though rare, the nickel sulphide inclusions are very troublesome and potentially dangerous when present in toughened glass. See the locations of deposits page for more information.
The concentrated solutions are analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy or photometric techniques.Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals - Kindle edition by Frank Crundwell, Michael Moats, Venkoba Ramachandran, Timothy Robinson, W.
G. Davenport. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note taking and highlighting while reading Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group 42comusa.com by: There are large deposits of platinum group elements in the Merensky and Upper Group 2 reefs in South Africa ("South Africa").
These deposits were formed from silicate magma intrusions. Immiscible sulfide liquid saturates the magma and attracts PGEs along with copper and nickel (Zientek, ).
platinum group metals or PGMs). Laterite ores are formed near the surface following extensive weathering, and occur abundantly in tropical climates around the equator or arid regions of central Western Australia or southern Africa.
Historically, most nickel production has been derived from sulfide ores with laterite ores.Virtually all platinum-group metals are pdf from copper or nickel sulfide minerals, which are concentrated by flotation separation. Smelting of the concentrate produces a matte that is leached of copper and nickel sulfides in an autoclave.
The solid leach residue contains 15 .Copper-Nickel ores Pentlandite ((Ni,Fe)S) is the most important nickel sulphide mineral and is often associated with nickel-containing pyrrhotite and chalcopyrite. Gangue minerals can include talc and other troublesome silicates which must be dispersed and/or depressed.Ebook 07, · 1.
A process for recovering ebook least one element selected from the group consisting of gold, silver, the platinum group metals and base metals from sulphide minerals which contain the element, the process including the steps of: (a) subjecting the sulphide minerals to biological oxidation in a first tank in a series of tanks, to produce a product.